Laboratory comparative assessment of warm and hot mixes Asphalt containing reclaimed Asphalt pavement
Keywords:HMA, moisture damage, RAP, Sasobit; WMA.
Warm mix Asphalt (WMA) could be mixed and used in paving at low temperatures to minimize the consumption of energy and the emissions of greenhouse gas. Recycled Asphalt pavement (RAP) could save Asphaltic cement and aggregate, which could achieve the better effects of recycling. However, both of the two WMA and RAP technologies have some deficiencies. Warm mix Asphalt and Reclaimed Asphalt pavement (WMA-RAP) technique may solve these issues and deficiencies when they are utilized together. This study investigated the implementations of WMA-RAP and its impacts on the performance of the Asphalt mixture. Under the framework of this study, four percentages of RAP (0%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) were added to the hot mix Asphalt (HMA) and WMA containing 4% Sasobit to study the impact of increasing RAP content on Marshall stability and moisture resistance of Asphalt mixtures. In summary, the Marshall stability of HMA and WMA mixtures is higher than the control mixtures. A small decrease in moisture resistance of both (HMA and WMA) containing RAP comparing to control mixtures Asphalt was observed, as shown by reduced the tensile strength ratios (TSR), but it is still much higher than the minimum of 80%.
Kasozi, Andrew M (2010). Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt from Two Field Projects: Reno, Nevada and Manitoba, Canada..
Gandhi, T. (2008). Effects of Warm Asphalt Additives on Asphalt Binder and Mixture Properties, Clemson Univ., PhD.Dissertation.
W. Rogers, (2011).Influence of warm mix additives upon high RAP Asphalt mixes, Clemson Univ., PhD.Dissertation.
Alossta, A. (2011). Evaluation of Warm Mix Asphalt Versus Conventional Hot Mix Asphalt for Field and Laboratory-Compacted Specimens. Master thesis, Arizona State University.
Arshad, A. K., Kridan, F. A. M., & Rahman, M. Y. A. (2013). The effects of Sasobit® modifier on binder at high and intermediate temperatures. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), 2(3):81-84.
O. Kristjansdottir, (2006). Warm Mix Asphalt for Cold Weather Paving,” Master thesis, University of Washington.
Kristjánsdóttir, Ó., Muench, S. T., Michael, L., & Burke, G. (2007). Assessing potential for warm-mix asphalt technology adoption. Transportation Research Record, 2040(1), 91-99.
M. Mejías-santiago, J. D. Doyle, I. L. Howard, and E. R. Brown, (2012). Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt Technologies for Use on Airfield Pavements Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory.
Martinho, F., Capitão, S., & Picado-Santos, L. (2012). Sustainable pavements: warm asphalt mixtures made with recycled aggregates from different industrial by-products. In Atas do EPAM4-4th European Pavement and Asset Management Conference, Malmö, Suécia.
Fakhri, M., & Azami, A. (2017). Evaluation of warm mix asphalt mixtures containing reclaimed asphalt pavement and crumb rubber. Journal of Cleaner Production, 165: 1125-1132.
D. Singh, S. F. Chitragar, and P. K. Ashish, (2017). Comparison of moisture and fracture damage resistance of hot and warm Asphalt mixes containing reclaimed pavement materials. Constr. Build. Mater., 157:1145–1153, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.09.176.
M. J. Ayazi, A. Moniri, and P. Barghabany, (2017). Moisture susceptibility of warm mixed-reclaimed Asphalt pavement containing Sasobit and Zycotherm additives. Pet. Sci. Technol., 35 (9): 890–895, doi: 10.1080/10916466.2017.1290655.
A. K. Arshad, F. A. M. Kridan, N. A. Kamaluddin, and E. Shafie, (2015). Evaluation of warm mix Asphalt performance with high RAP content. J. Teknol., 73 (4): 51–54, doi: 10.11113/jt.v73.4287.
S. Zhao, B. Huang, X. Shu, and M. Woods, (2013). Comparative evaluation of warm mix Asphalt containing high percentages of reclaimed Asphalt pavement. Constr. Build. Mater., 44: 92–100, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.03.010.
R. E. SCRB, (2003). Standard Specifications for Roads and Bridges.” Section R/9, Hot-Mix Asphaltic Concrete Pavement.
ASTM D6926 - 10. (2010). Standard practice for preparation of bituminous specimens using Marshall apparatus, ASTM.
ASTM D6927 - 15, (2015). Standard Test Method for Marshall Stability and Flow of Asphalt Mixtures 1. i:1–7, doi: 10.1520/D6927-15.2.
SASOL Performance Chemicals. https://www.sasol.com. Accessed on 04-October-2020.
ASTM D6307 - 10, (1999). Asphalt Content of Hot-Mix Asphalt by Ignition Method 1. 04: 6–10, doi: 10.1520/D6307-10.2.
ASTM, D. (2015). Standard test method for viscosity determination of asphalt at elevated temperatures using a rotational viscometer. In American Society for Testing and Materials.
Asphalt Institute, Asphalt Mix Design Methods (Metodos de Diseño de Concreto Asfaltico). 2015.
ASTM D2726-17, (2017). Standard test method for bulk specific gravity and density of non-absorptive compacted Asphalt mixtures, ASTM.
ASTM D2041-11, (2011). Standard test method for theoretical maximum specific gravity and density of bituminous paving mixtures, ASTM.
ASTM D3203-05, (2005). Standard test method for percent air voids in compacted dense and open bituminous paving mixtures, ASTM.
ASTM D6931-12, (2007). Standard Test Method for Indirect Tensile ( IDT ) Strength of Bituminous Mixtures. ASTM Int., no. Fixed desination D6981, pp. 1–5, doi: 10.1520/D6931-12.2.
ASTM D4867M-09, (2014). Standard Test Method for Effect of Moisture on Asphalt Concrete Paving Mixtures. ASTM, No. of pages: 5.
Charoentham, N., & Macharoen, P. (2017). A Study of Moisture Damage in Warm Mix Asphalt Concrete with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 12: 1458-1476.
F. Moghadas Nejad, A. Azarhoosh, G. H. Hamedi, and H. Roshani, (2014). Rutting performance prediction of warm mix Asphalt containing reclaimed Asphalt pavements. Road Mater. Pavement Des. 15 (1): 207–219, 2014, doi: 10.1080/14680629.2013.868820.
N. Guo, Z. You, Y. Zhao, Y. Tan, and A. Diab, (2014). Laboratory performance of warm mix Asphalt containing recycled Asphalt mixtures,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 64:141–149, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.04.002.