Study and Evaluation of Stored Drinking Water Characteristics Using Three Types of Roof Water Tanks in Kirkuk Governorate, Iraq

  • Abdulkhaleq K Mahmood, dr Water Resource Department, Middle Technical University, Kut Technical institute
  • Ali A Kamal, dr Environmental and pollution control Department, North Technical University, Technical Engineering College, Kirkuk
  • Ako R Hama, dr Civil Engineering Department, Komar University, Solimania, College of engineering
Keywords: drinking water, storage, rooftop tanks


The scarcity of safe drinking water is one of the problems faced by the majority of cities in the world. Kirkuk city is one of these cities, which suffer from a shortage of drinking water. People have adopted the use of different rooftop tanks to overcome this problem. This research focuses on studying the effect of storage time on the five main characteristics of drinking water, which include, acid index (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and turbidity (Tr). Three types of tanks were used predominantly (galvanized metal, plastic, and aluminum tanks). By analyzing the results, the characteristics of three samples of municipal source water obtained. Three samples were taken from each tank at different periods (4, 8, and 12 days). The results showed that the storage time affected the characteristics of drinking water. These characteristics differed from one tank to another. Metal tanks showed an increase in total dissolved solids, due to the evaporation process, even as plastic and aluminum tanks showed an increase in pH. The properties of all storage water tanks changed with times, but overall, the results were within the Iraqi limitation for drinking water. It was not easy to only depend on the results of this study to believe that any one type of water tank was better than the other, as the values of most of the variables studied had varied from one type to other. However, many studies have indicated a number of health risks, and most significantly with regard to plastic tanks, which are said to contain dangerous organic compounds that can be transferred to water. Metal tanks can cause zinc leakage, caused by a number of environmental factors at high levels. Aluminum tanks also can have an effect on the water in tanks.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


[1] S. M. Mahmoud and A. M. Ammar, "A Comparative Study on the Safety of Drinking Water Supply in Baghdad City". Iraqi Journal of Market Research and Consumer Protection, 2 (4), pp. 98-129. (2010).
[2] Y. F. Khalf, "Evaluating the efficiency of water liquefaction projects in Baghdad". PhD thesis, Faculty of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq. (2007)
[3] I.H. Mohammed, H. A. Yassin. "Study of the reality of drinking water in some areas of the city of Baghdad". Iraqi Journal of Market Research and Consumer Protection, 2 (3), pp. 228-243. (2010)
[4] AWWA, "Finished water storage facilities". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Standards and Risk Management Division: Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, D.C. (2002).
[5] L. Chevalier, M.W., "Coliform regrowth in drinking water": a review. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 82: 74-86. (1990).
[6] M. D. Sobsey, T. Handzel, and L Venczel.,. "Chlorination and safe storage of household drinking water in developing countries to reduce waterborne disease". Water, Science and Technology, 47 (3), pp: 221-228. (2003).
[7] I. A. Al-Aney,. "Evaluation of potable water of both East Tigris and Al-Karama purification plant in Baghdad". MSc. Thesis. College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq. (2002)
[8] J. Wright, S. Gundry, "Household drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point-of-use". Tropical Medicine and International Health, 9 (1), pp: 106-117. (2004)
[9] C.A. Schafer, "Impact of tank material on water quality in household water storage systems in Cochabamba, Bolivia". MSc. Thesis, College of Engineering, University of South Florida. (2010)
[10] M. G. Al-Azawi, S. A. Al-Obaidy. "Study of Aluminum concentration levels in Tigris River, drinking water treatment plants and supply network in Nineveh Governorate". AL Rafdain Engineering Journal, 18, pp: 13-25. (2010)
[11] World Health Organization. "Zinc in drinking water. Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Qualityā€¯. (2003)
[12] K. J. Nath, S.F. Bloomfield and, M. Jones. "Household water storage, handling and point of use treatment". A review commissioned by IFH, Accessed Online:
[13] T. Brick, B. Primrose, R. Chandrasekhar. "Water contamination in urban south India: household storage practices and their implications for water safety and enteric infections". International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 207 (5), pp: 473-480. (2004).
[14] L. Evison, and, N. Sunna. "Microbial re-growth in household water storage tanks". Journal of the American Water Works Association, 93, pp: 85-94. (2001)
[15] A. H. Ziadat. "Impact of storage tanks on Drinking water quality in Al-karak province Jordan". J. Applied sciences, 5 (4), pp: 634-638. (2005)
[16] D. Majesty, A Chioma, A. Benjamin, A. Chijioke. "Effect of different storage vessels on water quality". Global Research Journal of Science. 2 (2), pp: 9-13. (2013)
[17] J. H. Lars and A.S. Aqua team. "Potential water quality deterioration of drinking water caused by leakage of organic compounds from materials in contact with the water. Plastics key Proceedings", 20th NoDig conference, Copenhagen May 28-31. (2002)
[18] R. Ashby, Migration from Polyethylene Terephthalate under all conditions of use. Food Add. & contain, 5, pp: 485-492. (1988)
[19] N. Y. Salih, M. N. A. Al-Azzawi. " The assessment of some physical and chemical parameters of drinking water quality in Al-Wahda and Al-Qadisiyah treatment plants at Baghdad, Iraq", Iraqi Journal of Science, 2016, Special Issue, Part B, pp: 286-295. (2016).
[20] B. A. Mahdi, A. J. Mohammed, S. A. Mahdi, A. N. Ajaweed. " Investigation of the Drinking Water Quality of Some Residential Areas in Baghdad City - Karkh District", Iraqi Journal of Science, Vol. 57, No.1A, and pp: 78-97.( 2016)
How to Cite
Mahmood, A. K., Kamal, A. A., & Hama, A. R. (2019). Study and Evaluation of Stored Drinking Water Characteristics Using Three Types of Roof Water Tanks in Kirkuk Governorate, Iraq. Wasit Journal of Engineering Sciences, 7(1), 11-16.
Environmental Engineering