Wasit Journal of Engineering Sciences 2019-10-20T07:03:14-04:00 Wasit Journal of Engineering Sciences Open Journal Systems <div id="jInfo"> <div class="linkContent"> <div id="about" class="tip2"> <p>Refereed journals accept research from both inside and outside Iraq, in Arabic and English in all the journals Science and Engineering, which has not previously published in any scientific journal or scientific conference proceedings published by the Faculty of Engineering / University of Wasit by two issues a year.</p> </div> </div> </div> Smart Parking System Designed by using the Arduino for University park 2019-10-20T07:03:14-04:00 Baraa I AL-Rikabi <p><em>Due to the rapidly increasing density of vehicles, especially during rush hours of the day, it is a difficult task for drivers (students and teachers) to find a parking space to park their vehicles. This article proposes a Smart Parking system that provides the best possible solution to the parking problem in the University. The purpose of the Smart Parking system is to solve the predefined problem. This system uses a simple microcontroller and an inexpensive sensors that is used to control and allow the user to either enter the park or not, depending on the available parking spaces. Thus, the user is not made to wait unnecessarily. The technology used in this system helps to reduce the cost and human effort.</em></p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Wasit university Performance Comparison between DPSK and OQPSK modulation approaches in multi environments channels with Matlab Simulink models 2019-10-20T07:01:43-04:00 Fatima faydhe Al- Azzawi Faeza Abas Abid Zainab faydhe Al-Azzawi <p>Phase shift keying modulation approaches are widely used in the communication industry. Differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and Offset Quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) schemes are chosen to be investigated is multi environment channels, where both systems are designed using MATLAB Simulink and tested. Cross talk and unity of signals generated from DPSK and OQPSK are examined using Cross-correlation and auto-correlation, respectively. In this research a proposed system included improvement in bit error rate (BER) of both systems in &nbsp;the additive white Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, by using the convolutional and block codes, by increasing the ratio of energy in the specular component to the energy in the diffuse component (k) and &nbsp;the diversity order BER in the fading channels will be improved in both systems.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Wasit university Finite Element Analysis of Well Pads in Basra Province 2019-10-20T07:00:12-04:00 Haider Saad Al-Jubair Hiba Abdul Hussein Saheb <p>After the year 2003, the oil / gas sector evolved and gained investment. International companies of different origins utilized heavy drilling rigs (to achieve high drilling depths) and entered our region. Meanwhile, some drilling problems were recorded, accompanied by well-pad failure cases. This research aims to study the behavior of well-pads with different geometric configurations, under the effects of drilling rigs with various characteristics, within the Basra province. Four case studies have been selected to represent four fields, namely: Siba, Zubair, West Qurna-2, and Zubair-Mishrif fields. The finite element method is utilized to conduct a stress analysis process, adopting an elastic–plastic constitutive relation for soil, based on Drucker-Prager's yield criterion. The maximum contact pressure applied on soil (under the working loads) is compared to its bearing capacity. When a rigid method is used to calculate the contact pressure, it is compared with the ultimate soil-bearing capacity, as calculated by Reddy and Srinivasan's method for cohesive soils, with allowable bearing capacity taken from the Peck, Hanson, and Thornburn's method for cohesionless soils. The contact pressure calculated via the finite element method is compared with the ultimate soil-bearing capacity calculated using the same method, based on a settlement of 50 mm. The extreme values of the bending moments and shear forces developed in the well-pad sections (under the factored loads), are compared with the section capacities calculated by using the ultimate strength design method. Regarding the geotechnical side, the results indicate insufficient safety factors against soil shear failure for some cases, especially for cohesive soil profiles.&nbsp; For cohesionless soil profiles, the provided safety factors are sufficient. The finite element method reveals higher contact pressures compared to the conventional rigid method. For cohesionless soil profiles, the Peck, Hanson, and Thornburn's method, gives a bigger safety margin than the finite element method. The immediate settlement values are almost tolerable. Regarding the structural side, it has been identified that a uniform section is adopted for all locations of each pad, for individual wells. In most cases, the provided reinforcing steel is less than the minimum code requirement. This leads to a violation of the section capacity of bending, at least near the cellar. The beam shear capacity is rarely violated. Using strip footings beneath the rig skids, permits utilizing a heavy section that satisfies the requirements of structural safety, without violating the economic considerations.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Wasit university Optimization of Process Parameters of Friction Stir Welding by Taguchi Method 2019-10-20T07:02:06-04:00 Azzam Sabah Albunduqee Hussein R Al-Bugharbee <p><em>Friction Stir Welding is one of the technologies of joining solid states, which still attracts the researchers’ interest.&nbsp; In welded joints the mechanical properties are affected by a number of mechanical properties of the joined materials and by the process parameters as well. In the present study, the effect of a number of friction stir welding parameters on the tensile strength of the welded joint have been investigated using the Taguchi method and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study considers different levels of friction stir welding variables; namely, different rotational speeds of (2000, 1600, 1250 rpm), different welding speeds (12.5, 16, 20 mm / min), and different welding tilt angles (0, 1, 2 degrees). &nbsp;The optimum process parameters and their contribution rate were selected based on the Taguchi method for test design and by using the Minitab 16 program. In this study, the best results (i.e, higher tensile strength) were obtained at a rotational velocity of 1600 rpm, linear velocity of 16 mm / min, and welding angle, 1o. The highest tensile strength was obtained under these conditions.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;</em></p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Wasit university An Investigation of the Effect of interrupted fin arrangements on the Thermal Performance of a Heat Sink under a Free Convection Condition 2019-10-20T07:01:20-04:00 Abbas Jassem Jubear Ali Hameed Abd <p>The heat sink with vertically rectangular interrupted fins was investigated numerically in a natural convection field, with steady-state heat transfer. A numerical study has been conducted using ANSYS Fluent software (R16.1) in order to develop a 3-D numerical model.&nbsp; The dimensions of the fins are (305 mm length, 100 mm width, 17 mm height, and 9.5 mm space between fins. The number of fins used on the surface is eight. In this study, the heat input was used as follows: 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 watts. This study focused on interrupted rectangular fins with a different arrangement and angle of the fins. Results show that the addition of interruption in fins in various arrangements will improve the thermal performance of the heat sink, and through the results, a better interruption rate as an equation can be obtained.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Wasit university Predicting Unsteady Flow Parameters in a Subsonic Air Diffuser Using MacCormack’s Explicit Method 2019-10-20T07:02:51-04:00 Tawfeeq Wasmi M. Salih <p>A numerical procedure is presented to predict the flow characteristics inside a subsonic diffuser by solving Navier-Stokes' equations, using MacCormack’s explicit method. The flow is assumed to be viscous, compressible, unsteady and two-dimensional. The grid model suggested for the diffuser has 20 points in the horizontal direction and 30 points in the vertical direction. The numerical solution has shown reasonable results with a 2D variation of flow properties inside the diffuser and the steady state solution can be satisfied by 600-900 loops only. The obtained results of the present study are compared with those obtained by using a numerical code of National Project for Application-oriented Research in CFD (NPARC) as well as those obtained from a previous experimental study and give an acceptable range of errors (about ± 15%).</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Wasit university Study and Evaluation of Stored Drinking Water Characteristics Using Three Types of Roof Water Tanks in Kirkuk Governorate, Iraq 2019-10-20T07:02:29-04:00 Abdulkhaleq K Mahmood Ali A Kamal Ako R Hama <p>The scarcity of safe drinking water is one of the problems faced by the majority of cities in the world. Kirkuk city is one of these cities, which suffer from a shortage of drinking water. People have adopted the use of different rooftop tanks to overcome this problem. This research focuses on studying the effect of storage time on the five main characteristics of drinking water, which include, acid index (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and turbidity (Tr). Three types of tanks were used predominantly (galvanized metal, plastic, and aluminum tanks). By analyzing the results, the characteristics of three samples of municipal source water obtained. Three samples were taken from each tank at different periods (4, 8, and 12 days). The results showed that the storage time affected the characteristics of drinking water. These characteristics differed from one tank to another. Metal tanks showed an increase in total dissolved solids, due to the evaporation process, even as plastic and aluminum tanks showed an increase in pH. The properties of all storage water tanks changed with times, but overall, the results were within the Iraqi limitation for drinking water. It was not easy to only depend on the results of this study to believe that any one type of water tank was better than the other, as the values of most of the variables studied had varied from one type to other. However, many studies have indicated a number of health risks, and most significantly with regard to plastic tanks, which are said to contain dangerous organic compounds that can be transferred to water. Metal tanks can cause zinc leakage, caused by a number of environmental factors at high levels. Aluminum tanks also can have an effect on the water in tanks.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Wasit university Characteristics of Tigris River bed material at 67 Km Downstream Kut Barrage 2019-10-20T07:00:58-04:00 Mohammed Siwan Shamkhi Zainab Shakir Attab <p>The study reach has a length of about 70 km of Tigris River at downstream Kut barrage. This starts directly after Kut Barrage up to Shiekh Saad south of Kut city. The aim of this study is to analyze the bed material at the bottom of the Tigris River. Twenty-one samples were collected from seven cross-sections by using Van Veen's Grab Sampler. The median diameter (d<sub>50</sub>) of these samples ranged between 0.005 mm and 0.1 mm &nbsp;even as the mean size was 0.032 mm. This indicates that the bed material can be classified as fine grain clay, silt, sand &nbsp;and loam, and also that the percent of washed fine particles near the barrage regulators are larger than those at the other site downstream This could be due to the large water power of released water discharge from the barrage. The flow regime of the first two kilometers of the study reach was flatbed due to the high flow strength of the released water discharged from the barrage.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Wasit university The Effect of Information Technology on Fluidity of Contemporary Architectural Space 2019-10-20T07:00:34-04:00 Shatha Abbas Hassan Noor Ali Aljorani <p>The increasing importance of the information revolution and terms such as ‘speed’, ‘disorientation’, and ‘changing the concept of distance’, has provided us with tools that had not been previously available. Technological developments are moving toward Fluidity, which was previously unknown and cannot be understood through modern tools. With acceleration of the rhythm in the age we live in and the clarity of the role of information technology in our lives, as also the ease of access to information, has helped us to overcome many difficulties. Technology in all its forms has had a clear impact on all areas of daily life, and it has a clear impact on human thought in general, and the architectural space in particular, where the architecture moves from narrow spaces and is limited to new spaces known as the ‘breadth’, and forms of unlimited and stability to spaces characterized with fluidity. The research problem (the lack of clarity of knowledge about the impact of vast information flow associated with the technology of the age in the occurrence of liquidity in contemporary architectural space) is presented here. The research aims at defining fluidity and clarifying the effect of information technology on the changing characteristics of architectural space from solidity to fluidity. The research follows the analytical approach in tracking the concept of fluidity in physics and sociology to define this concept and then to explain the effect of Information Technology (IT) to achieve the fluidity of contemporary architectural space, leading to an analysis of the Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) architectural model. The research concludes that information technology achieves fluidity through various tools (communication systems, computers, automation, and artificial intelligence). It has changed the characteristics of contemporary architectural space and made it behave like an organism, through using smart material.</p> 2019-04-15T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Wasit university